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Here Christina Valadez center , with other Texan women from Matehuala, participates in a fund-raising event. The lure of economic opportunity and political freedom enticed many Caribbean people to attempt the risky journey to the United States aboard rafts and other flimsy vessels. Those arriving from communist Cuba were generally given refugee status and allowed to stay, while most from Haiti and other impoverished areas were returned.

Florida became increasingly Hispanic as large numbers of refugees started a new expatriate life in the United States.

The Bracero program through allowed Mexican nationals to take temporary agricultural work in the United States. Over the program's year life, more than 4. Mexican peasants, desperate for cash work, were willing to take jobs at wages scorned by most Americans. The Braceros' presence had a significant effect on the business of farming and the culture of the United States.

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The Bracero program fed the circular migration patterns of Mexicans into the U. Several groups concerned over the exploitation of Bracero workers tried to repeal the program. The Fund for the Republic supported Ernesto Galarza's documentation of the social costs of the Bracero program. Presented here is a selection of Nadel's photographs of Bracero workers taken in Women framed by an arch work and care for children in their San Mateo, Mexico, bracero family home.

This is one of the two rooms for a family of nine people living in San Mateo - - about 20 miles south of Mexico City. Other room is a kitchen, work room, and storeroom. When work is available in the village, a Mexican laborer may earn about 10 pesos per day Because of this, the wageearner of the family here wants to go to the U.


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Many people learned about the Bracero Program over the radio. A woman works at home surrounded by a radio, icons, furniture, and a painting of the Virgen de Guadalupe in San Mateo, Mexico. Women wash clothes and care for children in the courtyard of a bracero family home in San Mateo, Mexico. Braceros on the long trek to the Monterrey Processing Center, where they will be processed as potential farm workers. The journey to the Monterrey Processing Center was long and arduous, and many had to carry all of their belongings with them.

Mexicans on the Move

Supervised by an armed guard braceros wait in line to be processed through the Monterrey Processing Center, Mexico while others wait outside the barbed wire enclosure. An official reviews the documents of a bracero while others wait in line to be processed at the Hidalgo Processing Center, Texas. An official examines a bracero's hands for calluses during processing at the Monterrey Processing Center, Mexico.

One of the primary requirements for employment of braceros in the United States is that the men must have farming experience. During processing at the Monterrey Control Station in Monterrey, Mexico, a USES inspector examines the calllouses of a prospective laborer and decides that he is not eligible. Only after the men are accepted for employment in the U. The photographer, Leonard Nadel described the photograph with the following caption: "Much in the same manner and feeling used in handling livestock, upon crossing over the bridge from Mexico at Hidalgo, Texas, the men are herded into groups of through a makeshift booth sprayed with DDT.

Braceros work in a lettuce field with short-handled hoes in the Salinas Valley, California. You previously purchased this article through ReadCube.

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Purchase Instant Access. View Preview. Learn more Check out. Abstract Internal migration has been recognized as the major influence in terms of population redistribution across urban systems, but it is not a homogeneous phenomenon. Citing Literature. Volume 49 , Issue 1 March Pages Related Information. Close Figure Viewer. Browse All Figures Return to Figure.

Mexico-US Migration: Pew, Massey - Rural Migration News | Migration Dialogue

Previous Figure Next Figure. Email or Customer ID. Some of this increased migration reflects the fact that persons too poor to migrate previously can do so as a result of faster economic growth, but more of the migration reflects changing perceptions of opportunity, as residents who previously would have accepted a life as rain-fed farmers now want more. Especially youth in such families see international migration as the fastest way to achieve economic advancement. The migration response to globalization and modernization in poor countries depends in part on previous levels of migration.

Mexicans on the move

The human and social capital embodied in friends and relatives who have migrated and returned, as well as those who remain abroad, can be shared with those who have not yet migrated, so that some migration can beget more migration in snowball fashion as farmers leave agriculture. The displacement accompanying globalization, combined with new attitudes and aspirations and migration experience, represent cumulative causation, a process in which some migration generates more.

Cumulative causation helps to explain ever-increasing migration, but not why migration eventually falls. Well before wages are equalized in countries that are integrating economically, including Italy to Germany in the s and Mexico to the US recently, economically motivated migration can fall. Massey blames Congressional decisions for the upsurge in Mexico-US migration over the past four decades.

In , there were less than , Mexican-born US residents; by , there were about 12 million. Massey suggests that, since the mids, the outflow of Mexicans has been "fixed" at about , a year. During the Bracero era, most Mexicans shuttled between seasonal farm jobs in the US and homes in Mexico. Massey believes the decision to end the Bracero program in , when less than , Braceros were admitted, spurred illegal migration, even though apprehensions remained low until the mids.